ജീവനകാര്യം

1077-ലെ ഒന്നാം അബ്കാരി നിയമം

കേരള സംസ്ഥാനത്ത് അബ്കാരി ചട്ടങ്ങൾ‍‍‍ നടപ്പാക്കുന്നതിനുള്ള പ്രധാന നിയമമാണ് 1077-ലെ ഒന്നാം അബ്കാരി നിയമം.  “അബ്കാരി” എന്ന വാക്ക് മദ്യത്തിന്റെയും മയക്കുമരുന്നുകളുടെയും ഉദ്പാദനം, വില്പന എന്നിവയിലുള്ള നികുതി എന്നർത്ഥമുള്ള പേർഷ്യൻ വാക്കിൽ നിന്നും ഉരിത്തിരിഞ്ഞതാണ്.  1950-ൽ കേരള സംസ്ഥാനം രൂപീകരിച്ചതിനോടൊപ്പം തന്നെ പ്രൊഹിബിഷൻ ആക്ടും നിലവിൽ വന്നിട്ടുള്ളതാണ്.  എന്നാൽ പ്രസ്തുത നിയമം ആയതിന്റെ ഉദ്ദേശലക്ഷ്യങ്ങൾ സാഷാത്കരിക്കാത്തതിനാൽ SRO No.104/67 നോട്ടിഫിക്കേഷൻ പ്രകാരം സര്‍ക്കാർ പ്രൊഹിബിഷൻ ആക്ട്, 1950-ലെ 1, 7, 11 വകുപ്പുകൾ ഒഴികേയുള്ളവയുടെ തുടർന്നുള്ള നടപ്പാക്കൽ 01/05/1967 തീയതി മുതൽ റദ്ദ് ചെയ്തിട്ടുള്ളതും അബ്കാരി ആക്ടിലെ നിയമ വ്യവസ്ഥകൾ പുനരുജ്ജീവിപ്പിച്ചിട്ടുള്ളതുമാണ്.

പ്രസ്തുത സമയം സംസ്ഥാനത്ത് മൂന്ന് വ്യത്യസ്ഥ അബ്കാരി നിയമങ്ങൾ നിലവിലുണ്ടായിരുന്നു. അവ ട്രാവൻകൂർ അബ്കാരി ആക്ട് (തിരുവിതാംകൂറിന് വേണ്ടി), കൊച്ചിൻ അബ്കാരി ആക്ട് (കൊച്ചിക്ക് വേണ്ടി), മദ്രാസ് അബ്കാരി ആക്ട് (മലബാറിന് വേണ്ടി) എന്നിവയായിരുന്നു. ഈ സാഹചര്യത്തിൽ സംസ്ഥാനത്താകമാനം ബാധകമാകുന്ന ഒരു ഏകീകൃത നിയമത്തിന്റെ ആവശ്യകത ഉണ്ടായി.  ആയതിനാൽ കൊച്ചിന്‍ അബ്കാരി ആക്ട് ആവശ്യമായ ഭേദഗതികളോടെ 11/05/1697 മുതൽ സംസ്ഥാനത്താകമാനം ബാധകമാക്കുന്നതിന് സർക്കാർ തീരുമാനിച്ചു. 1077 ലെ ഒന്നാം കൊച്ചിൻ അബ്കാരി ആക്ട് സംസ്ഥാനമാകമാനം ബാധകമാക്കിയപ്പോൾ ആയത് 1077 ലെ ഒന്നാം അബ്കാരി ആക്ട് എന്ന് പുനർനാമകരണം ചെയ്തു.

ക്ഷേമരാഷ്ട്ര സങ്കൽപ്പത്തിൽ മുഖ്യ പ്രാധാന്യം ആയതിലെ ജനങ്ങളുടെ ക്ഷേമത്തിനാണ് നൽകുന്നത്.  പ്രസ്തുത ലക്ഷ്യം കൈവരിക്കുന്നതിലേക്ക്, മദ്യപാനത്തിന്റെ ദൂഷ്യവശങ്ങൾ നിയന്ത്രിക്കുന്നതിനും മദ്യത്തിന്റെയും ലഹരി വസ്തുക്കളുടെയും ഇറക്കുമതി, കയറ്റുമതി, കടത്ത്, ഉത്പാദനം, വില്പ്പന, കൈവശംവയ്ക്കൽ എന്നിവ സംബന്ധിച്ച നിയമങ്ങൾ ഏകീകരിക്കുന്നതിനും പരിഷ്കരിക്കുന്നതിനുമുള്ള ഒരു നിയമമാണ് അബ്കാരി ആക്ട്.  നമ്മുടെ ഭരണഘടനയിൽ അനുച്ഛേദം 47–ന്റെ സാന്നിദ്ധ്യവും മദ്യത്തിന്റെയും ലഹരി വസ്തുക്കളുടെയും നിരോധനത്തിനുള്ള വ്യവസ്ഥകൾ സംസ്ഥാന പോളിസിയുടെ മാർഗനിർദ്ദേശക തത്വങ്ങളിൽ ഉൾപ്പെടുത്തിയിട്ടുള്ളതും, മദ്യത്തിന്റെ അമിതമായ ഉപയോഗം ഒഴിവാക്കി സമൂഹത്തിൽ സൌഹാർദ്ധവും സമാധാനവും പുലർത്തുന്നത് വഴി പൊതുജന താത്പര്യം സംരക്ഷിക്കുന്നതിനുള്ള ഭരണഘടനാപരമായ കരുതലുകളാണ്.  ആയതിനനുസൃതമായി ഭരണഘടന ലക്ഷ്യം സാദ്ധ്യമാക്കുന്നതിനുള്ള ശക്തമായ നിയമമാണ് കേരളത്തിലെ അബ്കാരി ആക്ട്.

1996-ൽ ചാരായ നിരോധനം നടപ്പാക്കിയതിന്റെ ഭാഗമായി ടി നിയമത്തിൽ കാതലായ മാറ്റങ്ങൾ വരുത്തിയിട്ടുള്ളതാണ്.  തൊണ്ടി സാധനങ്ങളുടെ വേഗത്തിലുള്ള തീർപ്പാക്കലിനുള്ള വകുപ്പുകൾ ഉൾപ്പെടുത്തുകയും, കുറ്റകരമായ ഗൂഢാലോചനയും പൊതു ലക്ഷ്യത്തോടുകൂടിയുള്ള പ്രവർത്തിയും കൈക്കാര്യം ചെയ്യുന്നതിനുള്ള വ്യവസ്ഥകൾ കൂട്ടിച്ചേർക്കുകയും ചെയ്തത് സമൂഹത്തിന്റെ ആവശ്യങ്ങൾ സാദ്ധ്യമാക്കുന്നതിനുള്ള നിയമത്തിന്റെ സമയോചിതമായ ഇടപെടലിന്റെ ഏതാനം ഉദാഹരണങ്ങളായി ചൂണ്ടിക്കാണിക്കാവുന്നതാണ്.

ഒരു നല്ല നിയമത്തിന്റെ വിജയം അതിന്റെ ശരിയായ നടത്തിപ്പിനുള്ള സംവിധാനത്തെ  ആശ്രയിച്ചിരിക്കുന്നു.  ആയതിനാൽ പ്രസ്തുത ലക്ഷ്യം പ്രാവർത്യമാക്കുന്നതിന് എക്സൈസ് വകുപ്പിലെ ഓരോ ഉദ്യോഗസ്ഥരും അവരുടെ ചുമതലകളും അധികാരങ്ങളും ഭരണഘടനാപരമായ മാർഗ്ഗനിർദ്ദേശങ്ങളും സംബന്ധിച്ച് അബ്കാരി ആക്ട് പ്രകാരം നിഷ്കർഷിച്ചിരിക്കുന്ന വ്യവസ്ഥകൾ വ്യക്തമായി മനസ്സിലാക്കിയിരിക്കേണ്ടതാണ്.

Offence and Punishment under Abkari Act, I of 1077

Sl. NoOffenceSection of LawPunishmentPunishment SectionCompoundable or not

Bailable Offences

(a).Common Offences
1Transport : Transporting of liquor or indoxicating drug, exceeding such quantity notified by the Government, without a trasport permit.10Fine which may extend to five thousand rupees or with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years or with both.63Compounding Fee - Rs.5,000/-
2Possession : Possession of liquor or intoxicating drugs, in excess of the quantity prescribed.13Fine which may extend to five thousand rupees or with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years or with both.63Compounding Fee - Rs.5,000/-
3Consumption by Minors : Consumption or use of liquor by persons under the age of 23 years15AFine which may extend to five thousand rupees or with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years or with both.63Compounding Fee - Rs.5,000/-
4Sale to Minors : Sale of liquor to persons under the age of 23 years15BFine which may extend to five thousand rupees or with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years or with both.63Compounding Fee - Rs.5,000/-
5Consumption in public places : Consumption of liquor in public places, unless permitted under a licence.15CFine which may extend to five thousand rupees or with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years or with both.63Compounding Fee - Rs.5,000/-
6Taps toddy : Taps or causes to be tapped any toddy producing tree, in contravention of the Act or of any rules or order made under the Act.55(d)Imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year or with fine which may extend to ten thousand rupees or with both.55(2)Compounding Fee - Rs.10,000/-
7Draws toddy : Draws or causes to be drawn toddy from any tree, in contravention of the Act or of any rules or order made under the Act.55(e)Imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year or with fine which may extend to ten thousand rupees or with both.55(2)Compounding Fee - Rs.10,000/-
8Unlawful advertisement : Prints, publishes or gives any advertisement soliciting use of or offering any liquor or intoxicating drug.55HImprisonment for a term which may extend to six months or with fine which may extend to twenty five thousand rupees or with both.55H
9Exhibition without warning : Picturising and exhibiting scene of cinema, containing use or consumption or exhibition of liquor in theatre without statutory warning.55I(1)Simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months or with fine which may extend to ten thousand rupees or with both.55I(2)
10Consumption of preperations : Consumption of preperations containing liquor or intoxicating drug other than bonafide medicinal preperations in the business, manufacturing or stocking premises.56A(2)Fine which may extend to five thousand rupees.56A(2)Compounding Fee - Rs.5,000/-
11Vexatious delay : Vexatiously delays forwarding any person arrested, or any articles seized under the Act, to an Abkari Inspector, as required by section 40.60Fine which may extend to ten thousand rupees or with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year or with both.60
12Other Offences : Guilty of any act or intentional omission in contravention of any of the provisions of the Act, or of any rule or order made under the Act, and not otherwise provided for in the Act63Fine which may extend to five thousand rupees or with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years or with both.63
13Allowing land, building, room etc. : Permits to use the land, building, room, space or enclosure for manufacture, sale or storing for sale of liquor or intoxicating drug.64AFine which shall not less than twenty five thousand rupees.64A
(b). (b). Offences in relation to the licensees
1Misconduct by Licensee etc : The holder of a licence or permit granted unde the Act, or being in the employ of such holder and acting on his behalf-56Imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months or with fine which may extend to twenty five thousand rupees or with both.56Compounding Fee - Rs.25,000/-
(a). Fail to produce licence or permit on the demand of any Abkari Officer or of any other empowered officer.56(a)
(b). Wilfully does or omits to do anything in breach of any of the conditions of his license or permit.56(b)
(d). Permits drunkenness, riot or gaming in any place in which any liquor or intoxicating drug is sold or manufactured.56(d)
(e). Permits persons of notoriously bad character to meet or remain in any place in which any liquor or intoxicating drug is sold or manufactured.56(e)
2Mixing starch : Mixes or permits to be mixed with starch in the liquor or intoxicating drug, by the holder of a license.57(aa)Imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months or with fine which shall no be les than twenty five thousand rupees.57(ii)Compounding Fee - Rs.25,000/-

Non-bailable Offences

(a). Common Offences
1Arrack : Manufacture, import, export, transport, possess, store, distribute, bottle or sell arrack in any form.8(1)Imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years and with fine which shall not be less than rupees one lakh.8(2)Not
2Counterfeiting security sticker : Counterfeiting, selling, etc. of label or security sticker.12CImprisonment for a term which may extend to five years or with a fine which may extend to rupees one lakh or with both.55C
3Imports, exports, etc. : Imports, exports, transports, transists or possesses liquor or any intoxicating drug, in contravention of the Act or of any rules or order made under the Act.55(a)Imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years and with fine which shall not be less than rupees one lakh.55(1)
4Manufacture : Manufactures liquor or any intoxicating drus, in contravention of the Act or of any rules or order made under the Act.55(b)Imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years and with fine which shall not be less than rupees one lakh.55(1)
5Construct manufactory : Construct or works any distillery, brewery, winery or other manufactory in which liquor is manufactured, in contravention of the Act or of any rules or order made under the Act.55(f)Imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years and with fine which shall not be less than rupees one lakh.55(1)
6Materials, still, utensil, implement or apparatus : Uses, keeps, or has in his possession any materials, still, utensil, implement or apparatus whatsoever for the purpose of manufacturing liquor other than toddy or any intoxicating drug, in contravention of the Act or of any rules or order made under the Act.55(g)Imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years and with fine which shall not be less than rupees one lakh.55(1)
7Bottles liquor : Bottles any liquor for purpose of sale, in contravention of the Act or of any rules or order made under the Act.55(h)Imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years and with fine which shall not be less than rupees one lakh.55(1)
8Sells or stores for sale : Sells or stores for sale liquor or any intoxicating drug, in contravention of the Act or of any rules or order made under the Act.55(i)Imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years and with fine which shall not be less than rupees one lakh.55(1)
9Rendering denatured spirit : Rendering or attempting to render denatured spirit fit for human consumption.55BImprisonment for a term which may extend to five years and with fine which shall not be less than twenty five thousand rupees or both.55B
10Criminal Conspiracy : Agrees to do or causes to be done an illegal act under the Act, and does such an illegal act in pursuance of such agreement, by any one or more of the parties.55DSame punishment provided for the offence committed (for each person of the criminal conspiracy)
11False marking of property : False marking of property or use of false property mark, on any case, package, or other receptacle or any vehicle or goods or other moveble property containing liquor or drug, or removes or alter or destroys the original or genuine mark.55EImprisonment for a term which may extend to three years or with fine which may extend to one lakh rupees or with both.55E
12Possession of false maked property : Possession and control of things described in section 55E, uses or intended to be used for traffic of liquor or intoxicating drug.55FImprisonment for a term which may extend to three years or with fine which may extend to one lakh rupees or with both.55F
13Making or using false document : Dishonestly or fraudulently or without lawful authority makes any document or alters the content of any document, intending to manufacture, store, sell or to transport any liquor or intoxicating drug.55GImprisonment for a term which may extend to three years or with fine which may extend to one lakh rupees or with both.55G
14Allowing consumption of Preperations : Allowing consumption of any preperation containing liquor or intoxicating drug in business premises, otherwise than for the bonafide treatment, mitigation or prevention of any disease.56A(1)(a)Imprisonment for a term which may extend to five years and with fine which shall not be less than fifty thousand rupees.56A(1)
15Manufactures or stocks preperations : Manufactures or stocks or causes to be manufactured or stocked any preperation containing liquor or intoxicating drug, other than a bonafide medical preperations, within the business premises.56A(1)(b)Imprisonment for a term which may extend to five years and with fine which shall not be less than fifty thousand rupees.56A(1)
16Adulteration with noxious sustances : Mixes or permits to be mixed any noxious sustance or any substance which is likely to endanger human life or to cause grievous hurt to human being, with any liquor or intoxicating drug.57A(1)
(i) if grievous hurt is caused to any person57A(1)(i)Imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than two years but which may extend to imprisonment for life, and with fine which may extend to fifty thousand rupees.57A(1)(i)
(ii) if death is caused to any person57A(1)(ii)Death or imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than three years but which may extend to imprisonment for life, and with fine which may extend to fifty thousand rupees.57A(1)(ii)
(iii) in other cases57A(1)(iii)Imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than one year, but which may extend to ten years, and with fine which may extend to twenty five thousand rupees.57A(1)(iii)
17Omission to take reasonable precautions : Omits to take reasonable precautions to prevent the mixing of any noxious substance or any substance which is likely to endanger human life or to cause grievous hurt to human being, with any liquor or intoxicating drug.57A(2)
(i) if grievous hurt is caused to any person57A(2)(i)Imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than two years but which may extend to imprisonment for life, and with fine which may extend to fifty thousand rupees.57A(2)(i)
(ii) if death is caused to any person57A(2)(ii)Imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than three years but which may extend to imprisonment for life, and with fine which may extend to fifty thousand rupees.57A(2)(ii)
(iii) in other cases57A(2)(iii)Imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than one year, but which may extend to ten years, and with fine which may extend to twenty five thousand rupees.57A(2)(iii)
18Possession of liquor mixed with noxious substance : Possesses any liquor or intoxicating drug, with knowledge that it is mixed with any noxious substance or any substance which is likely to endanger human life or to cause grievous hurt to human being,57A(3)Imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than one year, but which may extend to ten years, and with fine which may extend to twenty five thousand rupees.57A(3)
19Possession of illicit liquor : Possession of any quantity of liquor or of any intoxicating drug, knowing the same to have been unlawfully imported, transported or manufactured, or knowing the duty etc. not to have been paid.58Imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years and with fine which shall not be less than rupees one lakh.58
20Sale of certain preperations : Sells any preperation which he knows or has reason to believe is intended to serve as a substitute for alcohol or intoxicating drug.58AImprisonment for a term which may extend to five years or with a fine which may extend to fifty thousand rupees or with both.58A
21Manufacture of certain preperations : Manufactures any preperations which can be used as a substitute for alcohol.58B(1)(a)Imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years and with fine which may extend to twenty five thousand rupees.58B(1)
22Adds intoxicating substance to alcoholic preperation : Adds any sustance, which produces intoxication, drowsines, sleep, stupification or insensibility, to any alcoholic preperation58B(1)(b)
23Imports, exports, etc. : Imports, exports, transports, possesses or sells any alcoholic preperation containing ingredients not approved by the Commissioner.58B(1)(c)
24Vexatious search or arrest : Enters or searches or causes to be searched any closed place without reasonable ground of suspicion, or vexatiously seizes the property of any person, or vexatiously detains, searches or arrests any person, or vexatiously exceeds lawful powers.59Imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years or with fine which may extend to twenty five thousand rupees or with both.59
25Abetment of escape of persons arrested : Unlawfully releases or abets the escape of any person arrested, or abet the commission of any offence, etc.61Fine which may extend to twenty five thousand rupees or with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years or with both.61
(b). Offences in relation to the licensees
1Adulteration : Mixes or permits to be mixed with the liquor or intoxicating drug, by the holder of a license, any non-noxious drug or any ingradient other than starch, or any non-noxious prohibited articles.57(a)Imprisonment for a term which may extend to five years or with fine which may extend to fifty thousand rupees or with both.57(i)

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